Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common, chronic progressive, neurodegenerative disorder slowly resulting in dementia. Its etiology and pathogenesis is complex, with many genetic and environmental risk factors including stress and insulin resistance.
The main morbid hallmarks in Alzheimer’s disease have long been recognized as extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intraneuronal hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which are the main contributors to the development of pathology.
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the therapeutic use of red or near-infrared light (Low Level Laser Therapy LLLT) to stimulate healing, relieve pain and inflammation, and prevent tissue from dying. PBM has been applied for a diverse range of brain disorders, frequently applied in a non-invasive manner, that is by shining light on the head.
Transcranial PBM can enhance ATP biosynthesis, regulate mitochondrial homeostasis, and facilitate neurogenesis and/or neuroplasticity .
In addition, the clinical studies found that LLLT could improve cognition and decrease depression, anxiety, headache and insomnia in patients with chronic traumatic brain injury [2,3,4].
Several clinical studies have demonstrated its value in raising neurometabolic energy levels that can improve cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive abilities in humans .
LLLT can decelerate neurodegenerative disease progression and reduce amyloid β levels in the cortex .